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Unlocking the Secrets of the Thyroid’s affect on Metabolism and overall Health

Tucked away beneath the delicate framework of your collarbone lies a butterfly-shaped gland that plays a pivotal role in our overall health—the thyroid. Governed by a sophisticated endocrine system, this gland produces hormones that have a sweeping effect on an array of bodily functions, from how quickly you burn calories to how fast your heart beats. At the core of this vast network of functions is metabolism—the process through which our body converts what we eat and drink into energy. Unfortunately, despite its significance, thyroid-related health concerns linked to metabolism disturbances are surprisingly common, affecting countless individuals worldwide.

Thyroid Disorders

The startling reality is that thyroid disorders have become somewhat of a modern-day epidemic. According to the American Thyroid Association, over 20 million Americans have some form of thyroid disease, and up to 60% of those with thyroid disease are unaware of their condition. 

Women, in particular, are five to eight times more likely than men to experience thyroid issues. Globally, the numbers are equally staggering, with millions suffering from disorders ranging from hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) to hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid), Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, and more.

Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is an autoimmune disorder that affects the thyroid gland, and the cases of it have been rising each year. It is characterized by chronic inflammation of the thyroid, which can lead to hypothyroidism. The condition tends to run in families, and over time, the thyroid gland’s function may be severely impacted. It is crucial to understand that Hashimoto’s thyroiditis often precedes the diagnosis of hypothyroid or hyperthyroid conditions. Testing for thyroid antibodies should be prioritized over solely checking TSH levels since TSH levels may not indicate early-stage damage to the thyroid. By the time the TSH level changes enough for further testing, the thyroid may already be damaged. Early detection is key, especially if Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is present, as one autoimmune disorder can lead to others developing.

Unfortunately, despite its significance, thyroid-related health concerns linked to metabolism disturbances are surprisingly common, affecting countless individuals worldwide. This makes understanding the intricacies of the thyroid, its relationship with metabolism, and the influence of our diet more crucial than ever.

Common Signs and Symptoms of Thyroid Imbalances:

  • Fatigue: A constant feeling of tiredness even after a good night’s sleep.
  • Unexplained Weight Changes: Rapid weight gain or loss without significant changes in diet or physical activity.
  • Mood Fluctuations: Instances of depression, anxiety, or irritability.
  • Temperature Sensitivity: Feeling excessively cold or hot when others feel comfortable.
  • Dry or Brittle Hair and Nails: This could include hair loss or thinning.
  • Irregular Menstrual Cycles: Periods that are too heavy or too light, or cycles that are inconsistent.
  • Constipation: Persistent and often painful bowel movements.
  • Cognitive Challenges: Difficulties in concentration, often termed “brain fog”.
  • Elevated Cholesterol Levels: Especially when they resist diet, exercise, or medication.
  • Muscle and Joint Pain: Aches, tenderness, or stiffness that don’t result from physical activity.
  • Swelling in the Neck: Often visible as a goiter, which could indicate an enlarged thyroid.
  • Changes in Heart Rate: Too fast or too slow, often accompanied by palpitations.
  • Difficulty Sleeping: Insomnia or waking up frequently during the night.

The Hidden Culprits: Gliadin-Based Grains

When it comes to thyroid health, what we consume significantly affects its functionality. Enter grains like wheat, rye, barley, and spelt. These contain a protein called gliadin which, though seemingly harmless, can wreak havoc on our thyroid. The molecular structure of these grains resembles that of the thyroid gland. Their consumption can incite inflammation in the gut. Over time and consistent consumption, this inflammation can lead to the leakage of these partially digested grains into our bloodstream. Once there, our body identifies them as foreign invaders, triggering even more inflammation every subsequent time these grains are introduced into our system.

Other Foods Impacting Thyroid Health:

Apart from gliadin-based grains, two common components of many diets, soy and dairy, have also been spotlighted for their potential negative impacts on the thyroid. This is especially concerning when you consider the critical role the liver and small intestine play in our metabolic health. These organs are responsible for converting the thyroid hormone T4 into its more active counterpart, T3. Proper T3 levels are quintessential for optimal metabolism and energy.

Understanding the Tests and Why They Matter:

When assessing thyroid health and its connection to metabolism, several tests play a crucial role in providing valuable insights. A comprehensive thyroid panel is often recommended as it covers various markers. This panel typically includes tests for free and bound T3 (triiodothyronine) and T4 (thyroxine), TPO (thyroid peroxidase), and TG (thyroglobulin) antibodies, as well as TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone) levels. In some cases, the consideration of thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) testing may also be appropriate.

Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) is one of the major transport proteins responsible for binding to and transporting thyroid hormones throughout the body’s tissues. It plays a significant role in regulating the availability and distribution of thyroid hormones. Testing for TBG levels can provide additional insight into the overall functioning of the thyroid and its impact on metabolism.

Furthermore, a metabolic panel is paramount. By examining liver and kidney markers, this test provides a lens into the health of these vital organs that underpin our thyroid function. Supplementary tests encompass a lipid panel, inflammatory markers, HA1C, and CBC with differential. Such tests offer a broader understanding of one’s metabolic health.

However, a crucial aspect to understand is the individuality of health. Only some people will need the same tests. The primary objective remains to identify and address potential underlying issues impacting thyroid function.

The Domino Effect:

The interconnected nature of our body means that when one part is out of balance, others can also feel the effects. This is especially true for the thyroid. Symptoms like fatigue, gastrointestinal issues, and muscle aches might often find their roots in a malfunctioning thyroid. Recognizing these signs and addressing the root cause is vital for overall well-being.

Food Options for Thyroid Health:

Boosting thyroid health isn’t merely about eliminating potentially harmful foods. It’s equally crucial to incorporate beneficial ones into our diet. Foods rich in iodine like seaweed and fish, and selenium-packed Brazil nuts can be excellent additions. Berries and other fresh produce, brimming with antioxidants, fight inflammation, while bone broth aids gut health, a critical facet of thyroid functionality.

However, if you’re grappling with Hashimoto’s disease or other types of autoimmune thyroid disorders, consuming large amounts of iodine can trigger adverse side effects. Foods high in iodine—such as kelp, dulse, or other varieties of seaweed, and certain iodine-rich medicines—may cause or exacerbate hypothyroidism. This highlights the importance of testing for antibodies, not just TSH levels, when assessing thyroid health.


Navigating the complex world of thyroid health can feel overwhelming, especially when experiencing the disruptive symptoms and potential food triggers associated with it. If any of these resonate with your experiences, taking the first proactive step toward a solution is crucial. Start by getting comprehensive testing done. Knowing is always better than wondering, and these tests can provide a clear picture of what might be happening beneath the surface.

Once armed with this knowledge, a functional medicine approach can be invaluable. This holistic perspective, rather than merely masking symptoms, delves into the root causes, ensuring you’re not just putting a temporary bandage on a persisting issue. Functional medicine focuses on the entire individual, recognizing that our systems are interconnected and influence each other in myriad ways.

And in this journey towards optimal thyroid health, consider partnering with experts like Shelly Tompkins. Her deep understanding of both the intricacies of thyroid health and the principles of functional medicine means that you’re not just getting symptomatic relief but a comprehensive strategy tailored to your unique needs. It’s about reclaiming your health, understanding the intricate dance between diet, metabolism, and thyroid, and making informed decisions to lead a balanced and harmonious life.


1. Wentz, I., & Nowosadzka, M. (2015). Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: Lifestyle interventions for finding and treating the root cause. Wentz LLC.

2. Gaby, A. R. (2017). Nutritional medicine. Fritz Perlberg Publishing.

3. Fasano, A. (2012). Zonulin, regulation of tight junctions, and autoimmune diseases. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1258(1), 25-33.

About Shelly Tompkins

Shelly Tompkins, L.Ac, C.F.M.P is a renowned women’s health, fertility & wellness expert and licensed acupuncturist, herbalist and functional medicine practitioner in private practice in San Diego, CA. She has extensive training and experience and has been in private practice for 35+ years and also taught at Pacific College of Oriental Medicine for 24 of those years. Shelly has worked with thousands of women, from puberty through senior years, to find answers and solutions to their overall health and hormone imbalances and more.

Her practice includes the use of laboratory testing to be able to find the answers to many of the health issues experienced in women and men. Through these labs, health history, and other tests, the assessments not only give answers, but ways to treat the body as a whole, so it works in its best capacity for healing.

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